Could mild herbal stimulants such as the coca leaf, khat, kratom or ephedra offer alternatives to the more concentrated substances that now dominate the market? Could the recreational stimulants market be steered towards a less harmful direction over time through differentiating the control mechanisms between plants and synthesized derivatives? Different legal regimes are currently implemented between countries and vary greatly for the different plants, some of which are erroneously classified as new psychoactive substances (NPS).

  • Yemen: Towards Qat Demand Reduction

    World Bank
    Report No. 39738-YE
    June 2007

    This report, based on a household survey conducted in 2006, discusses options for discouraging qat consumption in Yemen. It draws on a survey - the first representative data collection exercise aimed specifically at assessing the qat consumption phenomena - which confirms that the use of this drug is widespread. Qat is consumed by men, women and children; its use is extremely time consuming; it drains the family budget; has adverse health effects; negatively affects work performance and thus contributes to poverty.

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  • Ephedra for fun, performance and losing weight

    Cas Barendregt and Brigitte Boon
    Chapter from Drugs in Society
    Radcliffe Publishing 2007

    Substances that contain ephedra are known to aid weight loss and enhance athletic performance. Until April 2004 in the Netherlands, products containing this substance were available in pharmacies but also in so-called 'smart shops' (establishments where legal psychoactive substances are sold, usually for leisure purposes), where they were marketed as drugs for recreational use. On 6 April 2004, the Dutch government classified ephedra alkaloids as a medical drug in the Act on the Provision of Medical Drugs.

  • Substitution therapy for amphetamine users

    James Shearer, John Sherman, Alex Wodak and Ingrid van Beek
    Drug and Alcohol Review (2002) 21, pp. 179•-185
    June 2002

    The illicit use of amphetamines continues to be a growing problem in many countries around the world, yet treatment responses remain in need of further development. This is particularly true with regards to pharmacotherapy for amphetamine dependence. In this Harm Reduction Digest four authors who bring together considerable research and clinical experience in this area describe the nature of amphetamine-related problems and consider the role of amphetamine agonists in substitution therapy for amphetamine dependence.

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